Research Reports

Research Reports 2017-11-02T14:10:12+00:00

Fiscal Year 2017

Milling and Stabilization Optimization of Whole Corn Flour

Neil Doty, Northern Crops Institute

Human food and animal feed industries have become focused on reducing microbiological hazards originating from agricultural commodities. Flour and meal products derived from grain, such as corn, can be contaminated with microbiological hazards from the commodity itself; animal, bird, and insect contamination; transport equipment; storage facilities; processing equipment; and packaging materials.

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Research and Extension Efforts at the Soil Health and Agriculture Research Extension (SHARE) Farm

Abbey Wick, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Caley Gasch, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Frank Casey, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Dave Ripplinger, NDSU Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics

The SHARE Farm is both a location for research efforts and a platform for extension programming. On-site, research is being conducted on evaluation of soil health, conservation tillage approaches, incorporation of cover crops in rotation and also salinity management.

Identification and Management of Corn Diseases

Elizabeth Bauske, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology
Andrew Friskop, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology

Corn diseases are found regularly in North Dakota, yet their prevalence and severity have never been formally documented. Understanding the diseases that occur in the state and understanding which diseases pose the greatest economic threat will help drive future management decisions for growers. The objectives of this project will help document corn diseases in North Dakota, assess the yield loss potential of Goss’ leaf blight and wilt (Goss’ wilt), and develop a better understanding of the bacterial pathogen responsible for Goss’ wilt.

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Building a Short-Season Quality Gene Pool for the Next Generation of North Dakota Corn Hybrids

Marcelo Carena, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

This proposal addressed the need for genetic diversity and quality of North Dakota hybrids. Consequently, the NDSU corn-breeding program identified low cost high quality hybrids with reduced risk to farmers.

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Corn Response to Sulfur Application Rates

Jashandeep Kaur, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Amitava Chatterjee,
NDSU Department of Soil Science

Sulfur (S) is considered the fourth major nutrient for optimum plant growth and development. Unlike other major nutrients, researchers have not studied S extensively mainly because it was highly available from several sources like industrial emissions, fertilizers and pesticides, but several S deficiency incidences have been recorded in the Northern Great Plains.

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Improving the Profitability of N Use in Corn with Distiller Grains and N Fertilizer Extenders

Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences
Jasper Teboh, NDSU Carrington Research and Extension Center

Nitrogen is the most important applied fertilizer and is usually the most expensive input in corn production. Management practices that maximize the return to the nitrogen applied is critical for the profitability of a farming operation and for the environment. There are a number of fertilizer products available that slow the rate of N release from the fertilizer granule (ESN) or slow the conversion of ammonium-N to nitrate-N. ESN, SuperU™, and Instinct II™ were the products used in this research. Keeping N in the ammonium form longer can reduce the potential loss of N from the soil leaching or volatilization.

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Biochar Production from Manure and Wet Distillers Grains as an Environmental Management Option

Shafiqur Rahman, NDSU Department of Ag and Biosystems Engineering

The biomass-derived biochar has shown potential to increase soil properties that are conducive for plant growth with reduced environmental pollution. Therefore, to devise a sustainable farming system in North Dakota (ND) conditions, biochar derived from crop residues and animal manure needs to be investigated. The main goal of the study is to minimize odor and GHG emissions from animal feeding operations through conversion of manure, corn stover and wet distillers grains (WDG) to biochar. Biochar can be used as a soil amendment, can increase water-holding capacity, reduce bulk density, provide additional cation exchange sites, and serve as a source of reduced carbon compounds that may benefit microbial populations, thus ultimately promote plant growth. Similarly, application of biochar in soil can reduce GHG from crop production as well as from feedlot or manure storage.

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Potassium Recalibration in North Dakota

David Franzen, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Amitava Chatterjee, NDSU Department of Soil Science

Manbir Rakkar, NDSU Department of Soil Science
John Breker, NDSU Department of Soil Science

The objective of this project was to investigate the yield response of potassium (K) in corn in North Dakota. The original K fertilizer recommendations for corn in North Dakota were borrowed from other states, because soil test K levels in North Dakota were mostly in the high recommendation range, requiring little K. Export of K from our soils due to a change from a wheat state to corn and soybeans, containing many times more K in grain than wheat, has resulted in much lower K soil tests.

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Influence of Grain Source and DDGS Oil Concentration on Finishing Cattle Performance, Digestion and Feeding Behavior

Kendall Swanson, NDSU Department of Animal Sciences
Faithe Keomanivong, NDSU Department of Animal Sciences
Mary Rodenhuis, NDSU Department of Animal Sciences
Marc Bauer, NDSU Department of Animal Sciences
Vern Anderson, NDSU Carrington Research and Extension Center
Chanda Engel, NDSU Carrington Research and Extension Center

Distillers grains are a byproduct of the ethanol industry that provide an excellent feed source for livestock. Distillers grains are produced at multiple ethanol plants in North Dakota. A portion is used as a feed source for livestock in the state but the majority is sent to other locations. The current process to remove corn oil from distillers grains may alter the nutrient density and affect animal performance. This may alter the demand and use of distillers grains potentially affecting domestic use and exports.

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Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Corn and Evaluation of Corn Varieties for Resistances to Nematodes

Guiping Yan, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology
Andrew Friskop, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology
Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of  Plant Sciences

Plant- parasitic nematodes (PPN) are one of the greatest threat to world crop production today. These pests of roots are reported to cause yield losses of up to 20% in some U.S. corn fields. It was estimated that these parasites of roots reduced annual statewide grain corn yield by 4% in Iowa and 7% in Georgia. Similar results were observed in South Dakota where corn grain yield losses due to nematodes averaged in 9.5 bu/ac.

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Corn Germplasm Evaluation for Tolerance to Waterlogging

Qi Zhang, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

Waterlogging (i.e. flooding) is a major constrain in agricultural production, affecting about 10% of land worldwide. Farmers in North Dakota have experienced severe waterlogging damage in the last two decades. One of the most economically effective methods to reduce stress damage is use of tolerant plants. Furthermore, waterlogging-tolerant plants are less likely to be affected by other stresses such as disease and insect infections and weed invasion, thus reducing other inputs (e.g., chemical applications). Consequently, economic revenue is increased.

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Identification of Bt Resistance in Corn Rootworms

Janet J. Knodel, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology
Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

Mark Boetel, NDSU Department of Entomology
Veronica Calles-Torrez, NDSU Department of Entomology

Northern corn rootworm (NCR), Diabrotica barberi, and western corn rootworm (WCR), D. virgifera virgifera, are major insect pests of corn in the Midwest. Corn rootworm (CRW) larvae damage plants by feeding on roots, which results in plant lodging and reduced yields. Many corn producers have adopted the strategy of planting hybrids expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins to manage corn rootworms.

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Synthesizing Medical Material from Corn Bran

Mohiuddin Quadir, NDSU Department of Coatings and Polymeric Materials

We applied for a ‘North Dakota Corn Council 2016 Producer Education Mini Grant’ to initiate our research on corn-based polymers that can be used in biomedical settings. We have selected a biopolymer, Arabinoxylan (AX), which is abundantly present in corn, and investigated the feasibility of using AX for synthesizing nanoparticles. We are envisioning to use these nanosystems for drug delivery applications in cancer.

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Fiscal Year 2016

Maximizing Soil Warming and Health under Different Tillage Practices in a Corn-Soybean Rotation

Aaron Daigh, NDSU Department of Soil Science
Jodi DeJong-Hughes, University of Minnesota Extension
Abbey Wick, NDSU Department of Soil Science

There are many advantages of reducing soil tillage for building soil health.  However, reducing tillage creates concerns of yield reductions due to cool and wet soils in the poorly-drained landscape that dominates much of North Dakota and the Red River Valley.

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Plant-parasitic Nematodes on Corn and their Association with Environment Factors in North Dakota

Guiping Yan, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology

Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the major groups of parasitic organisms that can lower the yield of corn production in the United States. Very limited information exists on the occurrence of nematodes on corn in North Dakota and therefore this study surveyed 200 corn fields across 16 counties with major corn production counties being surveyed the most.

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Research and Extension at the SHARE Farm

Abbey Wick, NDSU Department of Soil Science

The Soil Health and Agriculture Research Extension (SHARE) Farm remains the premier soil health project.  Programming linked with the SHARE Farm takes place in winter months in the form of Soil Health Café Talks and a larger “end of the winter season” workshop along with a summer Annual Soil Health Field Day.

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Soil and Water Management for Corn Production

Amitava Chatterjee, NDSU Department of Soil Sciences
Aaron Daigh, NDSU Department of Soil Sciences

This long term tile drainage was located at Ron Holiday’s farm near Casselton, ND and it was initiated in summer 2013. We are comparing interactive effect of drainage (control- and open-tiled, surface drain only), crop rotation (continuous corn and corn-soybean), and tillage (chisel, strip and no-till) on corn production. In another experiment, different tile spacing (30, 40 and 50 ft) and depth (3 and 4 ft) were compared to find out which tile depth and spacing combination has the potential to maximize the yield.

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Developing a Corn Plant Pathology Program at NDSU

Andrew Friskop, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology

Diseases can be a major limiting factor in corn production in the United States and information on the prevalence of corn diseases in North Dakota is needed to help create awareness amongst growers in the state. To help develop disease management recommendations, a corn plant pathology program has been established at NDSU.

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Potassium Recalibration for Corn

David Franzen, NDSU Department of Soil Sciences

The 2015 year followed work on the project in 2014. The objective of the study is to determine the critical soil test level of potassium (K) that would define the test where above meant little value to K fertilizer would be realized, and below which would indicate K fertilizer is needed.

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Corn DDGS: A Novel Functional Material for Wood Composites

Dilpreet Bajwa, NDSU Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Sreekala Bajwa, NDSU Dept. of Ag. and Biosystems Engineering

In recent years, corn has been widely used to produce ethanol.  Roughly for every 25.4 kg of corn processed, 8.16 kg of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and 11 liters of ethanol are produced.  The amount of DDGS produced is steadily increasing since 1990 with 35 million metric tonnes produced in 2012.

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Gluten Free Product Research Using North Dakota Corn

Neil Doty, Northern Ag Development Corporation

Northern Ag Development Corporation conducted a feasibility study analysis that employed three interrelated components: an industry and market feasibility analysis, a product and technology analysis, and a financial feasibility analysis. The study focused upon the production of milled whole corn products whose intrinsic nutritional value for human consumption is superior to individual fractionated corn constituents.

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Adding Value to Northern Corn & Wet Distillers Grains as Fertilizer

David Ripplinger, Northern Corn Development

The U.S. high fructose corn syrup price forecast has been completed.  The price of HFCS is forecast to decline by a third over the next decade.

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Multifunctional Natural Food Additive from Corn and Dried Distillers Grain

Clifford Hall, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

The original proposal was to include the use of super critical fluid extraction as a means to recover pigments and antioxidants.  Before supercritical fluid extraction could be carried out, characterization of the DDGs was necessary to insure that the optimal extraction would be completed by Thar Technologies.

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Improving the Profitability of N Use in Corn

Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of Plant Science

The 2015 season was the first season of this two-year project. The objective of this project is to determine if fertilizer type (ESN, urea, wet distillers grain, Super U and UAN as a split) impacts fertilizer N efficiency.

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Web and App Based Nitrogen Calculators Available

D.W. Franzen, NDSU Department of Soil Science

The N calculator can be found on-line at https://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/soils/corn/  for use with lap-top or desktop computers.

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Building a Short Season Quality Gene Pool for North Dakota Hybrids

Marcelo Carena, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

Project activities focused on developing the next generation of short-season corn hybrids with reduced risk to farmers. We have worked toward increasing the genetic diversity from tropical and temperate regions while improving earliness, fast dry down, cold and drought tolerance, disease resistance, and ethanol and feedstock quality.

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Evaluation of Bt traits in Corn Hybrids for Control of Corn Rootworms in North Dakota

Janet J. Knodel, NDSU Department of Plant Pathology
Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of Plant Science

Northern corn rootworm (NCR), Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworm (WCR), D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are major insect pests of corn in the Midwest. Corn rootworm (CRW) larvae damage plants by feeding on roots, which results in plant lodging and reduced yields.

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Conservation Cropping Systems Project Corn Plots

Kelly Cooper, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

Dr. Dwayne Beck, farm manager of the Dakota Lakes Project in South Dakota commented last winter that tillage is like to soil, what fracking is to oil production. One little problem, when you get done pumping the oil out, you go elsewhere.

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Influence of Soil Salinity Gradients on Corn and Pest Infestation

Jason Harmon, NDSU Department of Entomology
Abbey Wick, NDSU Department of Soil Sciences

Previous research has shown corn sensitivity to soluble salts in the soil; however, this research has not been completed specifically for ND soils or for the specific salt types found in ND soils.  In the first year of this study, we evaluated corn response to salinity and resulting pest pressure responses in the greenhouse.  The second and third years of this study were completed in the field to determine if the results from the greenhouse study held true in the “real world.”

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Technical Support for a Revised Corn Hybrid Testing Program in North Dakota

Joel Ransom, NDSU Department of Plant Sciences

The 2015 season was the second season of testing within the newly revised and equipped corn hybrid testing program. Funds under this project are primarily used to support a research specialist who handles the day to day operations of this program that focuses on the eastern portion of North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota.

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Corn Production Optimization with Distillers Grains

Jasper Teboh, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

Farmers in North Dakota have been asking if the co-products, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and wet distillers grains (WDGs) from corn ethanol production can be used as viable sources of fertilizer.

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Increasing Cornstalk Use by Pregnant Cows and Improving Calf Health through Strategic Supplementation of Distiller’s Grains

Marc Bauer, NDSU Department of Animal Science

On day 201 of pregnancy, 27 aged cows were divided randomly into a control group (CON; n = 15) or a supplemented group (SUP; n = 12) and provided the same basal diet of corn stover and silage for ad libitum intake. Supplemented cows were additionally fed DDGS at 0.3% of body weight.

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Corn Residual Derived Carbon Nanosheets for High Volume Battery and Super-capacitor using Microwave Irradiation

Long Jiang, NDSU Department of Mechanical Engineering

Carbonaceous materials have been widely used to produce electrodes used in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and batteries. Activated carbon, a traditional carbonaceous material that is commonly used in commercial storage devices, only offers limited energy densities due to its low electrical conductivity and low accessible surface area.

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Wet Distillers Grains as Fertilizer – Economic and Environment

David Ripplinger, Northern Corn Development

Preliminary economic and environmental models that estimate the value and greenhouse gas intensity of wet distillers grains used as fertilizer have been constructed.

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Effects of Fat Level in Distillers Grain

Vern Anderson, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

Treatments were: 1) Modest fat ddgs (8-9%) fed with corn based growing and finishing diets;  2) Modest fat ddgs (8-9%) fed with barley based growing and finishing diets; 3) Low fat ddgs (4-5%) fed with corn based growing and finishing diets; 4) Low fat ddgs (4-5%) fed with barley-based growing and finishing diets.

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Development of a Bio-Fiber Composite Building/Landscaping Material with DDGS/Corn Fiber

Pankaj Pandey, NDSU Dept. of Ag. and Biosystems Engineering
Dilpreet Bajwa, NDSU Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Sreekala Bajwa, NDSU Dept. of Ag. and Biosystems Engineering

This project investigates the application of fibers from Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and corn hull as alternate raw materials in natural fiber filled polymer composites used in the building and landscaping industries. These sectors are currently served by wood plastic composites (WPC) that use wood fiber as the filler.

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